Culture


海南人是多元的!

Hainan is diverse!

The Hainan people (Chinese: 海南人), also known as Hainanese, Hainams or Hainam nang (in Hainanese dialect), are an East Asian people and a subset of the Han Chinese who originate from the island of Hainan, the southernmost and smallest province in China.

2011年发表了一篇引人入胜的文章,探讨了海南第一批人的DNA,也对这座古岛本身做了很多解释。 例如,海南是中国大陆的一部分,直到大约 20,000 年前最后一个冰河时代开始消退,大约 6,000 年前它才成为真正的岛屿。 由于冰川融化,海平面上升约100米,海南成为一个真正的岛屿。 根据题为“追溯早期海南岛民的遗产——从线粒体 DNA 的角度”的文章,人们已经在海南生活了 7 到 27000 年。 海南岛原住民主要是黎族和一些非黎族(村、当嘎和临高),几乎都扎根于中国南方和越南。

A fascinating article came out in 2011 that explored the DNA of Hainan’s first people and also explained a lot about the ancient island itself. For example, Hainan was part of mainland China until the last ice age started receding about 20,000 years ago and it was a true Island by about 6,000 years ago. As the sea level rose around 100 meters due to the melting glaciers Hainan became a true Island. According to the article titled: “Tracing the legacy of the early Hainan Islanders – a perspective from mitochondrial DNA,” people have been living on Hainan for somewhere between seven and 27 thousand years. The indigenous Hainan islanders are primarily of the Li populations and some of non-Li populations (Cun, Danga, and Lingao) with virtually all having roots in Southern China and Vietnam.

https://bmcecolevol.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2148-11-46

临高族、坦卡族和黎族是越族的后裔。 百越(中文:百越),百越,或简称越,是公元前一千年和公元一千年期间居住在华南和越南北部地区的各种民族。 他们以短发、纹身、精剑和海军实力而闻名。

The Lingaoese, Tanka and Li natives were descendants of the Yue tribe. The Baiyue (Chinese: 百越), Hundred Yue, or simply Yue, were various ethnic groups who inhabited the regions of South China and Northern Vietnam during the 1st millennium BC and 1st millennium AD. They were known for their short hair, body tattoos, fine swords, and naval prowess.

The Yue tribes were gradually displaced or assimilated into Chinese culture as the Han empire expanded into what is now Southern China and Northern Vietnam. Many modern southern Chinese dialects or those within Lingnan region bear traces of substrate languages originally spoken by the ancient Yue. Variations of the name are still used for the name of modern Vietnam, in Zhejiang-related names including Yue opera, the Yue Chinese language, and in the abbreviation for Guangdong.

An statue of a man, dating from State of Yue, located in the State Museum of Zhejiang province, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China. By Discott – Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=15807372

In Mandarin Chinese the word for Vietnam is Yuenan: 越南 Yuè​nán “Yue” means exceed, go beyond and the more, and “Nan” means south

On the left: Historical ethnolinguistic groups on Hainan, 1967 map. The dark green region is dominated by the Hainanese varieties of Min Chinese, while people in the light green region mainly speak Li/Hlai languages

海南菜 Hainan Cuisine

Photo by Anna Frodesiak

Hainan’s cuisine is diverse, but it’s generally true the food is lighter, less oily, and more mildly seasoned than on Chinese mainland. Sea-foods are the preferred main course, with prawn, crab, and freshwater and ocean fish being widely available.

Must-have street foods in S China’s Hainan. Photo from CGTN article: https://news.cgtn.com/news/2021-02-04/Must-have-street-foods-in-S-China-s-Hainan-XCcM1fyHeM/index.html
Photo from “The Telegraph” article titled: The Hainan street food you need to try – https://www.telegraph.co.uk/travel/discover-hainan/must-try-street-food/

Spirit Rivers and Rock Art of Ancient Hainan

The connection between an ancestor worship of the Luo Yue people and the motifs painted in the Huashan rock art is profound and well known. https://www.bradshawfoundation.com/china/huashan/religious_beliefs.php

Tomb of Hai Rui

For a little more modern rock art we have the Tomb of Hai Rui situated in the western outskirts of Haikou City, 5 kilometers (3.1 miles) from the civic center. It represents people’s esteem towards Hai Rui, an upright and uncorrupted official. It was originally built in 1589 during the Ming Dynasty (1368 -1644), and some of the constructions in the tomb garden remain intact. https://www.visionsoftravel.org/hai-rui-tomb-haikou-hainan

Religious sites

Buddhist Temples

您可以在此处下载海南18座佛教寺庙的列表:You can download a list of 18 Buddhist temples on Hainan here:

文昌孔庙  Confucian Temple

Photo from article titled: No.1 Temple in Hainan: Wenchang Confucius Temple by CGTN https://news.cgtn.com/news/2021-01-07/No-1-Temple-in-Hainan-Wenchang-Confucius-Temple-WR5habGifS/index.html

“文昌夫子庙位于海南省文昌市。 始建于北宋,明代迁至文昌。 是海南保存最完好的古建筑,也是华南地区最具特色的旅游景点。 被誉为海南第一寺。

“Wenchang Confucius Temple is in Wenchang City of Hainan Province. It was originally built in the Northern Song Dynasty, and moved to Wenchang during the Ming Dynasty. It is considered one of the best-preserved ancient architectures in Hainan, and is also one of the most unique tourist attraction in South China.

道观 Taoist Temple

Taoist Park of Heavenly Grottoes – Taoist Temple Complex “Dong Tian Dong”

Dong Tian is located 35 kilometers from the city of Sanya. You can get here by bus №25, by taxi or with a sightseeing group.

神社  Shrines

By Rolfmueller – Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=8982401

Sugong Shrine (苏公祠) Haikou,  Five Officials Temple (五公祠, Wŭgōng Cí) (Wikipedia has much more complete description than any of the tourist sites but the photos are so-so.)

Xitian Temple – (actually more of a shrine built to commemorate Wang Zuo (wáng zuǒ 王佐), who was a Ming Dynasty official. When he was the official in Hainan, he did many good things for the common people.)

Christian Churches

Under Construction

Islamic Masjids

Under construction

Arts and Crafts

Under construction

Nightlife

Under Construction


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